David M. Larson
Many species of animals have vocal alarm calls that they use to alert conspecifics to predators. This intraspecific communication is particularly widespread in songbirds and involves different vocalizations for different types of threats. As noted in an earlier "Gleanings," Black-capped Chickadees have different alarm vocalizations for flying and perched raptors (Larson 2016). Specific alarm calls for other dangers, such as nest parasites, are less commonly recognized.
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